5 types of dating abuse
WEAVE identifies various types of domestic violence. All of these types of abuse are done for the purpose of gaining power and control over the victim. These types of abuse are different but are often inflicted upon a victim in various combinations. Physical Abuse is the use of physical force against another person in a way that ends up injuring the person, or puts the person at risk of being injured. Financial Abuse may include withholding resources, stealing from the victim, or using the victims name to incur debt. Sexual Abuse is often linked to physical abuse; they may occur together, or the sexual abuse may occur after a bout of physical abuse.
Types of Abuse
The sample comprised subjects ages 18 to 21; mean age, For both females and males, non-physical dating violence victimization contributed to poor health. Both physical and emotional types of dating violence increase anxiety and depression in adolescent males and females [ 15 ]. Subjects who experienced both physical and psychological violence were at risk for poor health outcomes; exposed females had increased risk of depression symptoms, suicidal ideation, smoking, and adult violence victimization, and exposed males had increased risk of adult violence victimization.
Females who experienced psychological violence only were also at increased risk of heavy episodic drinking and adult violence victimization, and exposed males were at risk of antisocial behaviors, suicidal ideation, marijuana use, and adult violence victimization. The assessment did not cover the range of violence types physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse recommended for assessment by the U.
Studies of adults have more extensively parsed health effects by specific types of violence experienced in intimate relationships, including a consideration of the different violence types physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse recommended for assessment by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [ 18 - 20 ]. Our study significantly adds to the literature on the health correlates of specific types of adolescent dating violence.
Yet, little is known about how excessive monitoring through mechanisms such as cell phones or email relate to late adolescent health. The analytic sample comprised subjects ages 18 to 21 enrolled at The Ohio State University, recruited in two data collection efforts. Subjects completed a one-time only online survey to assess current health and retrospective dating violence histories from age 13 to 19 described below. The recruitment procedures were as follows:.
Two follow-up reminders were sent by email, three and seven days after the initial email. The cumulative response rate at each recruitment email was as follows: Through an introductory email which included the study description and survey link, instructors offered completing the survey as extra credit coinciding with the coverage of relationship-related topics in class. The over-distribution of females in the sample is consistent with the gender distribution in the Human Development and Family Science undergraduate program.
The over-distribution of females in Study 2 recruited from undergraduate classes compared to Study 1 recruited through the university registrar represented the main difference between the two samples, with otherwise similar characteristics between the two samples due to our narrow eligibility criteria e. To reduce response bias, subjects were first asked about health before they were asked about dating violence victimization.
Asking subjects details about dating violence first, which could be a traumatic experience, could potentially cause bias in their responses to the health items; specifically, subjects might provide lower health ratings if the experience of completing the dating violence questions was traumatic [ 24 ]. The two questions included:.
The cut point for frequent oral and vaginal sex was defined as having five or more partners. Anal sex was less common, so the definition included having had any anal sex. While these measures are likely to indicate sexual health risk from sexual transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, they may not constitute equivalent risk. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to assess dating violence histories retrospectively from age 13 to 19 [ 48 - 50 ].
We previously used this method to document domestic violence and child abuse histories in more than 4, women and men [ 24 - 26 , 51 - 57 ]. The timeline follow-back interview method has been used extensively to capture other risky health behaviors, such as drug and alcohol use [ 48 - 50 ]. We used memory prompts, such as asking the subject to remember the year they were in high school, to facilitate recall of the age that a relationship began and ended.
After we asked subjects detailed questions about their three most recent partners, we asked about the total number of partners subjects had beyond those three from age 13 to We created the following exposure groups based on prior studies that have conceptually and empirically examined physical and sexual violence within a single category [ 23 , 24 , 27 , 66 ], and psychological abuse only in a separate category [ 16 , 23 , 24 , 67 ]. Subjects in this group could also have exposure to non-physical abuse.
We included exposure to sexual pressure involving either or both verbal and physical coercion, as verbally coerced sexual acts have been shown to have lasting trauma for victims [ 25 , 43 ]. Using three questions from the Centers for Disease Control [ 47 , 68 ], we asked about 1 whether subjects had ever been bullied between ages 13 and 19 1 question ; and 2 whether subjects experienced other types of abuse before age 18, including being punched, kicked, choked, or receiving a more serious physical punishment from a parent or other adult guardian 1 question and being touched in a sexual place or being forced to touch another person when they did not want to 1 question.
All analyses were gender stratified. Chi-square tests were used to compare health indicators for subjects who reported any dating violence victimization with those who reported no victimization. Generalized linear models with a log link and robust sandwich variance estimators were used to obtain prevalence ratios PRs for each dichotomous health indicator for exposed compared to unexposed subjects, using a modified Possion regression approach [ 69 ].
Logistic regression models were not used because the health outcomes were not rare, and the odds ratios from these models would not closely approximate relative risks or equivalently, prevalence ratios. Analyses were completed using Stata statistical software, version The average age of subjects was Consistent with the Ohio State University student population in general http: The proportion of females and males who suffered non-dating physical abuse before age 18 being punched, kicked, choked, or receiving a more serious physical punishment from a parent or other adult guardian was 7.
A total of Bivariate associations between health indicators and any dating violence victimization. Our study and that of Exner-Cortens were both limited in that they were not able to determine the qualitative nature of the dating violence acts assessed. The sample size for males in our study was small, which reduced statistical power. As well, differences in the way constructs were operationalized across studies could potentially account for differences in findings. Our study had limitations.
First, generalizability is compromised due to our sample of predominantly White subjects enrolled at a large Midwestern university. Second, males in our sample were under-represented; the small sample of males resulted in wide confidence intervals and reduced precision of the point estimates. With the reduced precision of the point estimates, the results for males should be interpreted with caution; with this said, our findings showing increased risk of disordered eating among dating violence-exposed males is consistent with the findings of prior studies [ 4 , 5 ].
Third, our first sample drawn from university registrar records had a response rate of While our response rate of In a meta-analysis, Cook and colleagues determined that the mean response rate for mostly paper surveys across 49 studies was Fourth, even with our detailed retrospective dating violence assessment approach and with our validation analyses of the dating violence questions [ 64 , 65 ], it is possible that subjects misestimated dating violence experiences [ 58 ].
This said, within the abuse assessment literature, variations in reporting are expected depending on how and when abuse is assessed [ 81 - 83 ]. Fifth, because our survey was cross-sectional; it was not possible to assess temporality directionality between violence and health. Moreover, the small sample size precluded a specific examination of health impacts by the timing of abuse middle- versus late- adolescence , as we have done in our larger studies of adults [ 24 , 26 , 55 ]; future studies should examine these issues.
Finally, there could be unmeasured confounding in our study; in our multivariable analyses, we controlled for other potentially traumatic exposures such as bullying and non-dating abuse suffered before age 18, but were unable in our survey to assess the full range of factors e. Traumatic experiences during childhood adversely affect health in adulthood [ 58 , 72 , 73 , 84 - 89 ]. In the groundbreaking Adverse Childhood Experiences ACE studies, researchers suggest that the amplified health effects resulting from multiple adverse experiences in childhood, including violence, are due to the exposure of the brain to the stress response, which impairs brain structure and function [ 88 , 89 ].
We did not have information about factors, such as stress, that could fall in the pathway between dating violence and health. We are aware of studies currently under review that examine the impact of dating violence on stress responses; these studies will be helpful in the future for explaining pathways.
Information from forthcoming studies on stress responses and the qualitative nature of dating violence will further add to our understanding of dating violence. This highlights the need to implement programs, such as Safe Dates [ 61 , 90 ], to prevent dating violence and to intervene when it occurs. Centers for disease control and prevention; CI: Confidence interval; OR: Odds ratio; PR: Prevalence ratio; TDV: Teen dating violence.
The authors declare they have no competing financial or non-financial interests. MA helped design the survey, conducted the data analysis, and critically reviewed the manuscript. JMN and CB helped conceptualize the study and survey, added to the statistical analysis, and critically reviewed the manuscript. FPR helped design the survey and critically reviewed the manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Public Health. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Amy E Bonomi: Received Nov 20; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods The sample comprised subjects ages 18 to 21; mean age, Adolescents, Adolescent sexual behavior, Dating violence, Depression, Eating disorders.
The recruitment procedures were as follows: Survey Health and health behaviors To reduce response bias, subjects were first asked about health before they were asked about dating violence victimization. The two questions included: Relationship and dating violence histories We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to assess dating violence histories retrospectively from age 13 to 19 [ 48 - 50 ]. Open in a separate window. Other non-dating abuse exposures Using three questions from the Centers for Disease Control [ 47 , 68 ], we asked about 1 whether subjects had ever been bullied between ages 13 and 19 1 question ; and 2 whether subjects experienced other types of abuse before age 18, including being punched, kicked, choked, or receiving a more serious physical punishment from a parent or other adult guardian 1 question and being touched in a sexual place or being forced to touch another person when they did not want to 1 question.
Analysis All analyses were gender stratified. Table 2 Characteristics of the study sample. Results Characteristics of the study sample The average age of subjects was Table 3 Prevalence of dating violence victimization. Table 4 Bivariate associations between health indicators and any dating violence victimization. No TDV Non-physical only vs. Abbreviations CDC: Competing interest The authors declare they have no competing financial or non-financial interests.
Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:
What Are the Different Types of Dating Abuse? Dating abuse is a pattern of behaviors one person uses to gain and maintain power and control over their partner. Violent relationships can often be complex, and there are many kinds of abuse that can occur in a dating relationship: verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual.
Dating is exciting — there's no doubt about it. Dating can also be confusing, no matter how experienced you are. Sometimes it can be hard to recognize a good date or a good relationship versus an unhealthy one. If something doesn't feel right to you, it probably isn't. If your boyfriend, girlfriend or partner ignores your boundaries or hurts you — physically, sexually, emotionally or even online — that's called dating violence or an abusive relationship, and it's never OK.
Abuse can be more than broken bones and black eyes.
Orange County teens are facing varied and more frequent types of dating violence than any generation before them. Chapman University researchers have partnered with Orange County domestic violence agency Laura's House to determine how prevalent this issue is amongst teens to aid prevention efforts. National studies historically have researched the rate of physical violence , not taking into account other forms of abuse, including physical, psychological, emotional and sexual.
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. To these descriptions, one can also add the Kantian notion of the wrongness of using another human being as means to an end rather than as ends in themselves. Abuse of authority, in the form of political corruption, is the use of legislated or otherwise authorised powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality , is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties.
It's better than Tinder!
Dating abuse is a pattern of behaviors one person uses to gain and maintain power and control over their partner. Explore the tabs below to learn a few of the common types of abuse so you can better identify them. Experiencing even one or two of these warning signs in a relationship is a red flag that abuse may be present. Remember, each type of abuse is serious and no one deserves to experience abuse of any kind. Physical abuse is any intentional and unwanted contact with you or something close to your body. Examples of physical abuse include:. Start by learning that you are not alone. More than one in 10 high school students have already experienced some form of physical aggression from a dating partner, and many of these teens did not know what to do when it happened. If you are in a similar situation:. Unhealthy or abusive relationships usually get worse.
Beliefs that contain, individual uses to challenge sexist and federally-funded publications and to wear you to dating. Every individual uses to thirty to experience physical, evaluating your relationship abuse.
If you think you may be in an abusive relationship and need assistance, or if you are looking for help for a friend, please call the Philadelphia Domestic Violence Hotline at Expert counselors are waiting to speak with you, and all calls are confidential. For your safety, we will not respond to e-mail requests for assistance with problems of domestic violence.
Types Of Abuse
Dating violence is violence that occurs within a dating relationship rather than, say, marriage; and dating violence is as much a problem for teenagers as it is for adults. In fact, statistics show that one-in-three teenagers have experienced teenage domestic violence in a dating relationship. In situations of dating violence, one partner tries to exert power and control over the other partner through physical abuse or sexual assault. Emotional abuse is commonly present alongside physical abuse or sexual abuse that takes place. Sexual violence in dating relationships is also a major concern. Dating violence seems to decrease once young adults move beyond being a teenager. Part of this may be because of the way teenagers see themselves and because of their newness to dating. According to The Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence, young men and women may have certain beliefs that lead to a higher incidence of dating violence. And while all of those beliefs can also be seen in adults, they are likely more prevalent in teens. There are many warning signs of dating abuse and they should always be taken seriously. A pattern does not have to occur for it to be considered dating violence — one incidence of violence is abuse and it is one too many. Warning signs of dating violence are similar to those seen in adults.
Types of Abuse
Violent relationships can often be complex, and there are many kinds of abuse that can occur in a dating relationship: Verbal abuse can include swearing at a partner, insulting and belittling them, and threatening or terrorizing them with words. Typically, males use physical force to assert control, while females use it to protect themselves, to retaliate, or because they fear an assault. This type of abuse includes hair-pulling, biting, shoving, slapping, choking, strangling, punching, kicking, burning, using or threatening use of a weapon, and forcibly confining someone. Sexual abuse includes unwanted sexual touching, force or pressure to get a partner to consent, rape or attempted rape, and attempting or having sex with a person who is under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Teenage Dating Violence: Signs, Examples of Dating Violence
Becoming aware of the forms that abuse can take helps you to be better prepared to recognize such behavior as abusive. Once you are able to label abuse, you can begin to take steps necessary to stop it from happening or repeating. For those seeking addiction treatment for themselves or a loved one, the MentalHelp. Our helpline is offered at no cost to you and with no obligation to enter into treatment. Neither MentalHelp.
Orange county teen dating violence is twice the national average
Types of Domestic Violence
We are the nation's leading resource and advocacy organization for crime victims and those who serve them. Please join us as we forge a national commitment to help victims of crime rebuild their lives. Visit our Help for Crime Victims page to find local assistance and other helpful resources. Join the nation's leading resource and advocacy organization for crime victims and those who serve them. Dating violence is controlling, abusive, and aggressive behavior in a romantic relationship. It can happen in straight or gay relationships.
Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19—including dating violence types physical, sexual, and psychological , frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. A total of subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of subjects who completed the survey, we included 64 percent females; 36 percent males who had a dating partner from age 13 to FullyThe 5 Types Of Narcissists To Look Out For When Dating