Looking for antiques blue and white transferware is one of the more challenging tasks for the antiques shopper but also one of the more common. Artisans started making transferware in the s, but most of the pieces sold today are from much more recent decades. In the s, artisans in England began to use a transfer technique to create beautiful new dishes. These artisans would use a copper plate. These plates are not dishes intended for eating but instead are flat pieces used to etch designs.
Dating english pottery marks
Transferware is the closest thing to printed pottery — earthenware, porcelain, ironstone or bone china. Developed in Staffordshire, England in around , the process permitted transferring an etching onto pottery, using copper plates and tissue, then dipping the piece in water to float off the paper, and then glazing and re-firing it. It successfully eliminated hand painting upon which Spode and Wedgewood capitalized, and enabled potters to produce tremendous quantities of ware in little time.
Transferware became one of the most successful early forms of mass production. Although it is highly collectible and often highly valuable, when it first appeared in the late 18th century, transferware was the cheap alternative to more expensive imports from China. At first, it included extremely utilitarian pieces like tea and coffee sets, wash sets, smoker sets, vases, cheese wheels, etc.
Later, the potters of North Staffordshire became the first to offer, on a large scale, full sets of dinnerware, expanding the range of pieces available. Readily available and moderately priced, transferware magically transformed the daily life of ordinary households, in England and around the world. Since The earliest transferware designs were based on Chinese motifs and were typically blue against a white background.
Before , cobalt blue had been the color most often produced in volume since only blue cobalt could withstand the intense heat of the glost ovens. The Blue Willow pattern did not originate in China, however, but was a 19th-century merchandising scheme created in England, primarily for the American market.
A great many families moving west, carried their carefully wrapped Blue Willow dishes with them across the plains. An estimated 90 percent of older Blue Willow was made in Staffordshire County, but after a great many pieces were made in Japan and various other parts of the world. Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in there was a trade boom and British and European scenes and subjects became the fashion.
Views were taken from the popular books of topographical prints of England, Italy, India and other countries and from popular art works and print sources. Then, after the War of , Staffordshire potteries produced imagery calculated to appeal to American customers. A number of the major tableware firms produced goods exclusively for the American market. Although more blue was produced than other colors, colored transferware became popular in America in the s.
In some cases, specific colors, in particular pink and very dark blue, were exclusively produced for export to this country. It seemed that domestic American potters simply could not produce wares that could compete with the pottery of Mother England. Obtaining suitable clay and coal was a challenge to the production of transferware in early America. In fact, an English potter of dubious reputation tried to set up shop in Louisville, Kentucky in He decided that suitable raw materials were available, but only on public lands at Troy, Indiana, a few miles down the Ohio River.
He petitioned Congress, stating that in order to produce transferware at a profit he must have access to the raw materials to be found only on public lands. The petition was turned down and he sailed home with his wife and children in By about , some potteries were pushing the limits of blue on white by adding lime or ammonia to a kiln during firing, which made the blue glaze run or flow. By World War I, U. As for the objects themselves, they ranged from teapots and dinnerware to platters and vases.
Even dog bowls were produced in flow blue. The desirability of the ware waned in both countries between the wars, but interest picked up again in the U. Since large amounts of 19th-century flow blue had been shipped to, or manufactured in, the U. Another way to determine an authentic, antique piece is to look for faint lines that almost look like cracks through them that come from the paper transfer decal.
Transferware is some of the most beautiful china available. Single plates and serving pieces are great for display. Whether you collect a china cabinet full of transferware to actually use I do or just a few pieces, transferware is an attractive, nostalgic, and useful collectible that will bring you pleasure for years to come. Michelle Galler is an antiques dealer, design consultant and realtor based in Georgetown. Contact her at antiques. May 4, Facebook YouTube Twitter Email. Transferware tells a story.
About Michelle Galler 31 Articles. Michelle Galler has been an antique dealer and consultant for more than 25 years. If you have questions or finds, email her at antiques. Previous Courthouse Row for Oct. Next Wild Ideas: When you find snake eggs.
If you are asking: "Do I have any transfer ware? Dating and identifying items can be easy if the items are Registered under the English system (see registered . Transferware: A Timeless Decorative Art. The museum exhibit explains that transfer printing as a decorative technique was developed in England in the mids, particularly in the Staffordshire region. The process began when a flat copper plate was engraved with a desired pattern.
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After inheriting her grandmother's collection of antiques, Dolores has maintained an interest in the care and sale of vintage items. Flow Blue is highly collectible, antique blue-and-white china.
The process began when a flat copper plate was engraved with a desired pattern in much the same way as the plates used to make paper engravings were produced. Once the plate was inked with a ceramic coloring, the design was impressed on a thin sheet of tissue paper.
Here Are 10 Interesting Facts About Classic Blue Willow China That You Probably Didn’t Know
Not a member but want to receive e-mail updates from us? Join the Transferware Central Update List. What is transferware? Transferware is pottery. It can be earthenware or porcelain, ironstone or bone china. This is done by inking an etching which has been engraved on a copper plate, applying a specially sized paper to the copper plate, and transferring the pattern left on the inked paper onto an undecorated piece of pottery.
Turn Your Plate Over and Have a Good Read: Dating and Understanding Transferware
Transfer printing is a method of decorating pottery or other materials using an engraved copper or steel plate from which a monochrome print on paper is taken which is then transferred by pressing onto the ceramic piece. It was developed in England from the s on, and in the 19th century became enormously popular in England, though relatively little used in other major pottery-producing countries. The bulk of production was from the dominant Staffordshire pottery industry. America was a major market for English transfer-printed wares, whose imagery was adapted to the American market; several makers made this almost exclusively. The technique was essential for adding complex decoration such as the Willow pattern to relatively cheap pottery, but the ease with which very detailed images could be used rather went to the head of earlyth-century potters, who tended to produce dense overcrowded designs that, though very evocative of their period, are in questionable taste. Earlier and later wares show more restrained designs. In particular, transfer printing brought the price of a matching dinner service low enough for large numbers of people to afford. Apart from pottery, the technique was used on metal, and enamelled metal , and sometimes on wood and textiles. It remains used today, although mostly superseded by lithography.
Why do people collect plates? Let's face it, most of us do in one way or another.
Flo Blue, Blue Willow, and Staffordshire Historical Blue are all names of various wares decorated with underglaze transfer designs in cobalt blue. Although limited reproductions of all those types have been made for many years, new blue transferware now occupies entire pages of reproduction wholesale catalogs. Several American wholesalers each sell over 40 new shapes; one English supplier offers nearly pieces. Many new pieces have patterns identical, or at least very similar, to authentic 19th century patterns.
Post-Colonial Ceramics. The technique of transferring printed patterns to be fired under the glaze was first developed on English porcelain. Transfer printing revolutionized the Staffordshire ceramic industry. This process, which used tissue paper to transfer a design from an engraved and inked copper plate to a ceramic vessel, allowed potters to quickly apply complex decoration to pottery. Printed wares remained popular in the United States until around the mid-nineteenth century, when they gave way to undecorated or minimally decorated white earthenwares and white granite wares white ironstones for a time. While some potteries identified their wares using printed or impressed marks that often included the manufacturer's trademark as well as the pattern name, the vast majority of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century printed pottery was unmarked. Thus, identifying and dating printed earthenware sherds has always been problematic for archaeologists. Analysis of more than 3, marked and tightly datable Staffordshire printed vessels has made it possible to see time trends in the production of different decorative motifs and colors Samford Motifs and colors generally had a to year range of peak production, allowing likely manufacturing dates to be assigned to unmarked or fragmented printed earthenware. To arrive at the date ranges presented below, data was collected on marked pieces with known manufacturing ranges of less than 40 years. The beginning and end production dates, or mark dates, were listed for each vessel Godden The sum of all beginning production dates in each identification criteria category was totaled and divided by the number of examples to arrive at a mean beginning date.
Collecting Antique and Vintage Plates and Dishware
Transfer ware The transfer printing process began in and was developed by John Sadler and Guy Green of Liverpool. It was then adopted by Josiah Wedgwood who used it on his ivory based "Creamware". Transfer printing is a process by which a pattern or design is etched onto a copper or other metal plate. The plate is then inked and the pattern is "transferred" to a special tissue. The inked tissue is then laid onto the already bisque fired ceramic item, glazed, and fired again.
When I was growing up, we used the Corelle plates everyone had in the 80s. But when we sat down for nice family dinner it was always Blue Willow china. My mom has a vast Blue Willow collection ranging from plates and teacups to a gravy boat and butter dish. She even has a small oil lamp and clock made from a Blue Willow plate. My great-grandma ran a boarding house during the Great Depression, when Blue Willow was widely available and cheap. Oh, the stories those plates could tell!
Nglish pottery marks here are some tips on scientific dating english pottery and numbers. Historic england, workman, is the. Zh was extremely popular. Direct dating english pottery, dating english pottery from the s. See more ideas about chinese ceramics design registration numbers. Dating english registry marks, collecting pottery, so looking at bases can be accurately.
Transferware is the closest thing to printed pottery — earthenware, porcelain, ironstone or bone china. Developed in Staffordshire, England in around , the process permitted transferring an etching onto pottery, using copper plates and tissue, then dipping the piece in water to float off the paper, and then glazing and re-firing it. It successfully eliminated hand painting upon which Spode and Wedgewood capitalized, and enabled potters to produce tremendous quantities of ware in little time. Transferware became one of the most successful early forms of mass production. Although it is highly collectible and often highly valuable, when it first appeared in the late 18th century, transferware was the cheap alternative to more expensive imports from China. At first, it included extremely utilitarian pieces like tea and coffee sets, wash sets, smoker sets, vases, cheese wheels, etc.
.How to Identify, Date & Value Antique Plates