Korte dating gedichten

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Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France [8] and Germany, and in Indonesia, [n 1] while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, Canada and Australia combined. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English [n 5] and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them.

In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands. In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin , the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church. With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i. Vlaemsch , Hollandsch , and Brabantsch. The more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became.

Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries , a cognate of theodisk most likely Middle Dutch Duutsc was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch , which came to refer exclusively to the people of the Netherlands. A usage of the English term Dutch that includes German survives in the United States in the name Pennsylvania Dutch for a local German dialect and its speakers, commonly believed to be a corruption of their endonym Deitsch.

In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and was gradually replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation started at the Burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder , laag , bas , and inferior "nether" or "low" to refer to the area known as the Low Counties goes back further in time. From the designation Nederlands received strong competition from the name Nederduits "Low Dutch;" Dutch is used here in its archaic sense that covers all continental West Germanic languages.

It is a calque of the aforementioned Roman province Germania Inferior and an attempt by early Dutch grammarians to give their language more prestige by linking it to Roman times. Likewise, Hoogduits "High Dutch" came into use as a Dutch exonym for the German language, spoken in neighboring German states. Subsequently, German dialects spoken in the north were designated as Niederdeutsch "Low German".

The names for these dialects were calqued in the Dutch language area as the exonyms Nederduits and Hoogduits. As a result, Nederduits no longer served as a synonym for the Dutch language, and Nederlands prevailed as sole Dutch endonym. It also meant that Hoog "High" had to be dropped in one of the two meanings of Hoogduits , leading to the narrowing down of Duits as Dutch exonym for the German language, and Hoogduits as reference for southern German dialects. The early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the Salian Franks in the fifth century, and thus, it has developed through Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch over the course of 15 centuries.

On the other hand, Dutch has been replaced in adjacent lands in present-day France and Germany. The division into Old, Middle and Modern Dutch is mostly conventional, since the transition between them was very gradual. One of the few moments when linguists can detect something of a revolution is when the Dutch standard language emerged and quickly established itself. The development of the Dutch language is illustrated by the following sentence in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch:.

Among the Indo-European languages , Dutch is grouped within the Germanic languages , meaning it shares a common ancestor with languages such as English, German, and the Scandinavian languages. All Germanic languages are subject to the Grimm's law and Verner's law sound shifts, which originated in the Proto-Germanic language and define the basic features differentiating them from other Indo-European languages. The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: East now extinct , West , and North Germanic.

It is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North or East Germanic. It appears that the Frankish tribes fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest, which are still seen in modern Dutch. The Frankish language itself is poorly attested. A notable exception is the Bergakker inscription , found near the Dutch city of Tiel , which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish.

Although some place names recorded in Roman texts such as vadam modern Dutch: However, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the rest of the text. The name of their kingdom survives in that of France. Although they ruled the Gallo-Romans for nearly years, their language, Frankish , became extinct in most of France and was replaced by later forms of the language throughout Luxembourg and Germany in around the 7th century.

However, the Old Franconian language did not die out at large, as it continued to be spoken in the Low Countries, and subsequently evolved into what is now called Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch in the Low Countries. The High German consonant shift, moving over Western Europe from south to west, caused a differentiation with the Central and High Franconian in Germany. Hardly influenced by either development, Old Dutch remained close to the original language of the Franks, the people that would rule Europe for centuries.

The language did however experience developments of its own, such as very early final-obstruent devoicing. In fact, the find at Bergakker indicates that the language may already have experienced this shift during the Old Frankish period. Attestations of Old Dutch sentences are extremely rare. The language is mostly recorded on fragmentary relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle Dutch and loan words from Old Dutch in other languages.

In this Frankish document written around the oldest Dutch sentence has been identified: Maltho thi afrio lito "I say to you, I free you, serf" used to free a serf. Another old fragment of Dutch is Visc flot aftar themo uuatare "A fish was swimming in the water". The oldest conserved larger Dutch text is the Utrecht baptismal vow — starting with Forsachistu diobolae I forsake the devil". If only for its poetic content, the most famous Old Dutch sentence is probably Hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan, hinase hic enda tu, wat unbidan we nu "All birds have started making nests, except me and you, what are we waiting for" , is dated to around the year , written by a Flemish monk in a convent in Rochester , England.

Since the sentence speaks to the imagination, it is often erroneously stated as the oldest Dutch sentence. Old Dutch naturally evolved into Middle Dutch. The year is often cited as the time of the discontinuity, but it actually marks a time of profuse Dutch writing and during this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed. There was at that time no overarching standard language ; Middle Dutch is rather a collective name for a number of closely related mutually intelligible dialects whose ancestor was Old Dutch.

Where Old Dutch fragments are very hard to read for untrained Modern Dutch speakers, the various literary works of Middle Dutch are somewhat more accessible. Round vowels in word-final syllables are rather frequent in Old Dutch; in Middle Dutch, such vowels are leveled to a schwa. The Middle Dutch dialect areas were affected by political boundaries.

The sphere of political influence of a certain ruler often also created a sphere of linguistic influence, with the language within the area becoming more homogenous. Following the contemporary political divisions they are in order of importance:. A process of standardisation started in the Middle Ages , especially under the influence of the Burgundian Ducal Court in Dijon Brussels after The dialects of Flanders and Brabant were the most influential around this time.

The process of standardisation became much stronger at the start of the 16th century, mainly based on the urban dialect of Antwerp. The fall of Antwerp to the Spanish army led to a flight to the northern Netherlands, where the Dutch Republic declared its independence from Spain. This influenced the urban dialects of the province of County of Holland.

In , a further important step was made towards a unified language, [34] when the Statenvertaling , the first major Bible translation into Dutch, was created that people from all over the new republic could understand. It used elements from various, even Dutch Low Saxon , dialects but was predominantly based on the urban dialects of Holland of post 16th century.

In the Southern Netherlands now Belgium and Luxembourg , developments were different. Under subsequent Spanish , Austrian and French rule , the standardisation of Dutch language came to a standstill. The state, law, and increasingly education used French, yet more than half the Belgian population were speaking a variety of Dutch. In the course of the nineteenth century the Flemish Movement stood up for the rights of Dutch speakers, mostly which were referred to as "Flemish".

However, the dialect variation was a serious disadvantage in the face of the standardised francophonie. Therefore, the situation in Belgium is essentially no different from that in the Netherlands, although there are recognisable differences in pronunciation, comparable to the pronunciation differences between standard British and standard American English. This treaty lays down the principle that the two countries must gear their language policy to each other, among other things, for a common system of spelling.

Its closest relative is the mutually intelligible daughter language, Afrikaans. Dutch stands out in combining some Ingvaeonic characteristics occurring consistently in English and Frisian and reduced in intensity from west to east over the continental West Germanic plane with dominant Istvaeonic characteristics, of which some of them are also incorporated in German. Unlike German, Dutch apart from Limburgish has not been influenced at all by the south to north movement of the High German consonant shift and had some changes of its own.

For a comparison between the West Germanic languages, see the sections Morphology, Grammar and Vocabulary. Dutch dialects are primarily the dialects that are both related with the Dutch language and are spoken in the same language area as the Dutch standard language. Although heavily under the influence of the standard language, some of them remain remarkably diverse and are found in the Netherlands and northern Belgium.

The areas in which they are spoken often correspond with former mediaeval counties and duchies. The Netherlands but not Belgium distinguishes between a dialect and a streektaal " regional language ". Those words are actually more political than linguistic because a regional language unites a large group of very different varieties. Such is the case with the Gronings dialect , which is considered a variety of the Dutch Low Saxon regional language, but it is really very distinct from other Low Saxon varieties because of a Frisian substrate.

Also, some Dutch dialects are more remote from the Dutch standard language than some varieties of a regional language are. Such is the case with West Flemish, which is considered a Dutch dialect but is far more remote from the standard language than most Dutch Low Saxon varieties are. Within the Netherlands, a further distinction is made between a regional language and a separate language, which is the case with the standardised West Frisian language.

It is spoken alongside Dutch in the province of Friesland. Dutch dialects and regional languages are not spoken as often as they used to be, especially in the Netherlands. Recent research by Geert Driessen shows that the use of dialects and regional languages among both Dutch adults and youth is in heavy decline. In , 27 percent of the Dutch adult population spoke a dialect or regional language on a regular basis, but in , that was no more than 11 percent. In , 12 percent of children of primary school age spoke a dialect or regional language, but in , that had declined to 4 percent.

Dialects are most often spoken in rural areas, but many cities have a distinct city dialect. For example, the city of Ghent has very distinct "g", "e" and "r" sounds that greatly differ from its surrounding villages. The Brussels dialect combines Brabantian with words adopted from Walloon and French. Some dialects had, until recently, extensions across the borders of other standard language areas. In most cases, the heavy influence of the standard language has broken the dialect continuum.

Examples are the Gronings dialect spoken in Groningen as well as the closely related varieties in adjacent East Frisia Germany. Limburgish Limburgs is spoken in Limburg Belgium as well as in the remaining part of Limburg Netherlands and extends across the German border. West Flemish Westvlaams is spoken in West Flanders , the western part of Zeelandic Flanders and also in French Flanders , where it virtually became extinct to make way for French. The West Flemish group of dialects, spoken in West Flanders and Zeeland , is so distinct that it might be considered as a separate language variant, although the strong significance of language in Belgian politics would prevent the government from classifying them as such.

An oddity of the dialect is that, the voiced velar fricative written as "g" in Dutch shifts to a voiced glottal fricative written as "h" in Dutch , while the letter "h" becomes mute just like in French.

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Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France [8] and Germany, and in Indonesia, [n 1] while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, Canada and Australia combined. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English [n 5] and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them. In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands. In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin , the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church. With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i. Vlaemsch , Hollandsch , and Brabantsch. The more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became. Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries , a cognate of theodisk most likely Middle Dutch Duutsc was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch , which came to refer exclusively to the people of the Netherlands.

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Dutch language

Was that very wrong of heractiveI also wanted to say that although I dont eat hagelsag here in Texas I still mention it on a regular basis to explain how Hersheys isnt chocolate. Same here with American bread and real butter. I miss it dearly here in the US as well as a lot of other Dutch stuffHagelslag isnt weird its just choclate spread but hard And the little mice muisjes are called that because if you look very closely the little sugarcoated seeds will have a tiny tail sticking out. Btw try strawberries on beschuit its deliciouswe do that too in the Netherlands But you have to try the real PEANUTbutter wich actually tastes like peanuts. Ik ben uit Amerika en ik leer Nederlands nu. Slight thing in her dotage with sparse wirewool There are a few websites in NL check google where you can order Dutch food they deliver in around a week to your house in the UK Geniaalim flemish and i eat this everyday We also have a pure chocolate spread. Heres a link httpDeTo put all this sprinkleeating madness into perspective I will share with you a littleknown fact Dutch people are said to consume over million kilos of hagelslag each year. Our grandson love them too even the gestampte muisjes he called it poeder muisjes. Anijs is wonderful especially in winter. And by Dutch people I mean adults.

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I make vegan cheese in Amsterdam. And no one here calls it faux

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