Radiocarbon dating of fossils taken from caves on islands along southeastern

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Kushtaka Cave

Are the results a confirmation of rapid formation of the geologic column as modern sedimentology studies have predicted? Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone bio-apatite, fossil wood, amber, megafauna. Bone collagen and soft tissue were recently reported as having been discovered in a Tyrannosaurus dinosaur femur bone as well as other fossil bones from the Cretaceous period of the geologic column by Mary H.

Schweitzer et al. According to Dr. Libby, the inventor of the radiocarbon dating method, " There is no known natural mechanism by which collagen may be altered to yield a false age. It is common practice to determine the age of bones by radiocarbon RC dating of extracted bone collagen but not of dinosaurs because they are assumed to have become extinct 65 million years BP and, therefore, too old for RC dating.

The data was challenged by Thomas Stafford as poor science due to assumed contamination from modern C with younger surficial calcium carbonate. Bone bio-apatite can be unreliable due to potential contamination from calcium carbonate replacement containing modern or dead carbon [unless carefully pretreated].

However, a study of the cm. The age of the clay was estimated to be between , years old by J. All were less than 40, RC years except for 21; most of the latter 21 were about the same age as for unfossilized wood from drill core samples deep in the permafrost of Prudhoe Bay Alaska: Koch] at m depth F. It's important to note that the authors concluded: Vartanyan et al.

According to the authors K. Thompson and L. Agenbroad, " The warm spring waters that infiltrated the sinkhole leached out the collagen in the bones. Stuckenrath Jr. Long et al. One case in point came from the study of tektites in Victoria, Australia [Lake Torrens and Lake Eyre regions] called australites. According to J. Lovering et al. Younger ages for fission tracks were ascribed to partial annealing of fission tracks by reheating on the earth's surface. One of their team members, E.

Gill, had RC dated charcoal and calcareous nodules as they were found with "australites. Furthermore, fossil materials other than dinosaur bones and amber that should be free of C but contain significant amounts include anthracite coal, fossil natural gas, fossil wood and marble resulting from the metamorphism of limestone. Some examples from many references include: P McNichol et al. Beukins et al ; 26 fossil CO2, 0. Aerts -Bijma et al.

Beukins et al. C dates for carbon-containing material from the Chesapeake Bay or Chicxalub core samples would be useful for comparison. Controversial radiometric dates have been recorded for material from Hawaiian volcanic eruptions in and the Hawaiian magma there gave dates of 1. B Dalrymple. Six fragments from a single diamond exhibited essentially identical C values — Geology of the Triceratops and Hadrosaur excavation sites: The Triceratops and Hadrosaur femurs were found in popcorn clay.

The term, popcorn clay is non-technical. It looks like popcorn. It usually refers to any clay that swells and shrinks. The color varies from grey to grey-green to green to tan; it is found in distinct thick strata. It contains much volcanic material such as bentonite, or clays such as montmorillonite or vermiculite. It is very slippery in wet, and crunchy in dry condition, according to paleontologist Otis Kline.

Triceratops and Hadrosaur locations: Regarding elevation, the GPS unit showed m. The highest nearby point is approximately m southwest of the find and is m above sea level. The location of this RC dated Triceratops singular femur bone is just over 2. No other bones were found with the femur. The elevation appears to be the same as the Triceratops being excavated on Kline's "Lone Ridge" for the past three summers where no femur bones were discovered. Photos a-d in Fig. Photos were unavailable for the Hadrosaur femur excavation.

In Fig. Photos 1 of actual excavation are shown in Fig. In light of the discovery of soft tissue in a T-Rex from the Montana Hell Creek Formation and RC dates for other fossils in the geological record it was decided to examine the bone interior of this femur, as Libby's team did with Smilodon and Schweitzer et al. The Triceratops femur was resting on a layer of popcorn clay in an apparent, almost aseptic sand and fine clay matrix. It can also be seen from Fig. Because of its proximity to the surface, the paleontologists had to contend with some roots of living plant material before reaching the bone.

Perhaps the most informative documentation of Figs. Photos 3a-3c are of Triceratops femur bone during and after sawing; photo 3d is a portion of Glendive MT Dinosaur and Fossil Museum field research station; photomacrograph 3e is of material from bone interior containing bone collagen. Identification of the femur was made by comparing with photos and descriptions from a standard paleontology text-book and comparison with a young adult femur, cm long.

Inspection of the femur cross section in Fig. Samples from different interior locations were easily removed by hand with a with a stainless steel scoop-type instrument as shown in Fig. Radiocarbon dating methods: Hedges for ensuring RC dates are valid in situations demanding a careful investigation or try to pinpoint an absolute RC date.

In the case of the conventional method, Hedges wrote: First, different chemical fractions can often be extracted from the same sample, and enough to permit repeat dates to be made if the first measurement is suspect in any way. Both these approaches are invaluable in increasing confidence in the reliability of a date.

The modified Longin method by Kh. Arslanov et al. Sullivan et al. We washed the collagen obtained in distilled water until no Calcium was detectable. We then treated the collagen with 0. Finally, we separated the humic acid residue from the gelatin solution by centrifugation, and the solution was evaporated. Benzene was synthesized from the dried gelatin by burning in a "bomb" or by dry pyrolysis, using the standard methods The RC ages listed in Table 1 are accompanied by corrected percent of modern carbon and other pertinent RC factors for most of the RC dates.

The conventional and the AMS testing methods were applied to different samples from both dinosaur femur bones as noted in Table1. The modified Longin method was used for extraction and purification of collagen for Sample Tri. The percent of collagen was 0. GX conv. Again the modified Longin method was used for extracting 0. This was the very first sample from either bone that was dated so it was apparent that more experimental testing would be required.

For sample: Another sample of about thought to be grams had been sent in before Hd. GXconv for dating using the conventional method. However there was only mg of total carbon in this sample, insufficient for the conventional method so it was dated using the AMS method. This was in very close agreement with the GX The next four dates Hd UGAMS, , , came from one 56 gram sample of Hadrosaur bone and arrangements were made to divide the above sample into different portions to date: The oldest date was for the bio-apatite fraction and the youngest date was for purified collagen but all were essentially the same see Table 1.

The oldest date was for the bio-apatite fraction. Results of Testing for C in dinosaur femur bones. Table 1. Summary of supporting evidence for accuracy and reliability for the significant presence of C in dinosaur bones and therefore young RC ages. Short Summary: The most obvious scientific justification for accepting the RC ages for dinosaurs in the thousands of years is the concordance of RC ages between bone collagen and bone bio-apatite.

We have made such repetitive tests and we obtain dates in the 22,, range for dinosaur bones each time a different dinosaur bone or portion of the bone was tested for C For example: Collagen and soft tissue were detected in dinosaur bones which is " exceptional preservation " and should not be there after so long a time period as 65 M years.

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Radiocarbon dating of fossils taken from caves on islands along southeastern

Kushtaka Cave is a near-shore solution tube located in a cove on the east side of the El Capitan Passage in center of photo at left. It is very similar in size and configuration to other den sites such as El Capitan and Bumper Caves. The entrance crawlway is very tight. Inside the entrance is a large otter nest made of sticks see photos below. The cave splits into two low crawlways, one of which loops around to a second entrance.

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Enigma Cave is located in a bay at the northwestern end of Dall Island and is only about meters from the coast and meters above sea level. It was discovered in the summer of during a Tongass Cave Project expedition, funded by Tongass National Forest, and is the largest known cave on Dall Island.

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Radiocarbon dating of fossils taken from caves on islands along

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Enigma Cave

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The authors requested a talk. The route and timing of early human movement to the Americas has been a contentious topic for decades. Traditionally, humans were thought to have colonized the Americas via an inland ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets, but recent studies suggest this migration took place before the ice-free corridor was ecologically viable Dixon, To address this issue, 13 bedrock and boulder samples were collected from mapped refugia Carrara et al. Thus far, five 10Be exposure ages have been obtained. Two bedrock samples from Dall Island return an average 10Be exposure age of These two sites, previously mapped as LGM refugia, appear to have been occupied and eroded by the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the LGM, which retreated from the outer coast of the Alexander Archipelago between 18 and 17 ka.

Are the results a confirmation of rapid formation of the geologic column as modern sedimentology studies have predicted? Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone bio-apatite, fossil wood, amber, megafauna. Bone collagen and soft tissue were recently reported as having been discovered in a Tyrannosaurus dinosaur femur bone as well as other fossil bones from the Cretaceous period of the geologic column by Mary H. Schweitzer et al. According to Dr.

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