Dating age range wikipedia
Age disparity in sexual relationships is the difference in ages of individuals in sexual relationships. Concepts of these relationships, including what defines an age disparity, have developed over time and vary among societies. Differences in age preferences for mates can stem from evolutionary mating strategies and age preferences in sexual partners may vary cross-culturally. There are also social theories for age differences in relationships as well as suggested reasons for 'alternative' age-hypogamous relationships.
Generation X or Gen X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. Demographers and researchers typically use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid s to the early s. Generation Xers were children during a time of shifting societal values and as children were sometimes called the " latchkey generation", due to reduced adult supervision as children compared to previous generations, a result of increasing divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, prior to widespread availability of childcare options outside the home.
As adolescents and young adults, they were dubbed the " MTV Generation " a reference to the music video channel. In the s they were sometimes characterized as slackers , cynical and disaffected. Some of the cultural influences on Gen X youth were the musical genres of grunge and hip hop music , and indie films. In midlife, research describes them as active, happy, and achieving a work—life balance. The cohort has been credited with entrepreneurial tendencies.
The term Generation X has been used at various times throughout history to describe alienated youth. In the s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up immediately following World War II. The book's title came not from Billy Idol's band, as many supposed, but from the final chapter of a funny sociological book on American class structure titled Class , by Paul Fussell.
In his final chapter, Fussell named an "X" category of people who wanted to hop off the merry-go-round of status, money, and social climbing that so often frames modern existence. Billy Idol had attributed the name of his band to the book Generation X , a book on popular youth culture written by two British journalists, Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett. Author William Strauss noted that around the time Coupland's novel was published the symbol "X" was prominent in popular culture, as the film Malcolm X was released in , and that the name "Generation X" ended up sticking.
The "X" refers to an unknown variable or to a desire not to be defined. In the U. Author Neil Howe noted the delay in naming this demographic cohort saying, "Over 30 years after their birthday, they didn't have a name. I think that's germane. Generation X is the demographic cohort following the post—World War II baby boom , representing a generational change from the baby boomers. Many researchers and demographers use dates which correspond to the fertility-patterns in the population, which results in a Generation X starting-date of , such as Pew Research Center which uses a range of —,  Australia's McCrindle Research Center which uses —,  and Gallup which also uses — They argue that those born between and are part of Generation X rather than the Baby Boomers because they are distinct from the Boomers in terms of cultural identity and shared historical experiences.
Some researchers use dates similar to Strauss and Howe's such as the University of Michigan 's Generation X Report , a quarterly research report from The Longitudinal Study of American Youth , which defines Generation X as those born between and Author Jeff Gordinier , in his book X Saves the World , defines Generation X as those born roughly between and but possibly as late as How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift.
Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth-year ranging from as early as [ citation needed ] to as late as ,  and with the final birth year as late as A Census report counted approximately 84 million people living in the U. Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of Michigan wrote that "Generation X refers to adults born between and " and it "includes 84 million people".
At the time it was published they wrote that there are approximately Gen Xers. The birth control pill , introduced in the early s, was one contributing factor of declining birth rates seen in the late s and 70s. However, increased immigration partially offset declining birth rates and contributed to making Generation X an ethnically and culturally diverse demographic cohort. Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe , who wrote several books on generations, including the book specifically on Generation X 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?
Strauss wrote that society "moved from what Leslie Fiedler called a s-era 'cult of the child' to what Landon Jones called a s-era 'cult of the adult'. The Gen X childhood coincided with the sexual revolution , which Susan Gregory Thomas described in her book In Spite of Everything as confusing and frightening for children in cases where a parent would bring new sexual partners into their home.
Thomas also discussed how divorce was different during the Gen X childhood, with the child having a limited or severed relationship with one parent following divorce, often the father, due to differing societal and legal expectations. In the s, only 9 U. S states allowed for joint custody of children, which has since been adopted by all 50 states following a push for joint custody during the mids.
The time period of the Gen X childhood saw an increase in latchkey children , leading to the terminology of the "latchkey generation" for Generation X. Latchkey children became common among all socioeconomic demographics, but were particularly common among middle and upper class children. The higher the educational attainment of the parents, the higher the odds the children of this time would be latchkey children, due to increased maternal participation in the workforce at a time before childcare options outside the home were widely available.
The United Kingdom's Economic and Social Research Council described Generation X as "Thatcher's children" because the cohort grew up while Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister from to , "a time of social flux and transformation". They were described in a marketing report by Specialty Retail as the kids who "lived the civil rights movement. In the s, Strauss reported Gen Xers were "by any measure the least racist of today's generations".
Politically, in the United States, the Gen X childhood coincided with a time when government funding tended to be diverted away from programs for children and often instead directed toward the elderly population, with cuts to Medicaid and programs for children and young families, and protection and expansion of Medicare and Social Security for the elderly population. One in five American children grew up in poverty during this time.
These programs for the elderly were not tied to economic need. Congressman David Durenberger criticized this political situation, stating that while programs for poor children and for young families were cut, the government provided "free health care to elderly millionaires". Gen Xers came of age or were children during the crack epidemic , which disproportionately impacted urban areas and also the African-American community in the US.
Drug turf battles increased violent crime, and crack addiction impacted communities and families. Between and , the homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 doubled in the US, and the homicide rate for black males aged 18 to 24 increased almost as much. The crack epidemic had a destabilizing impact on families with an increase in the number of children in foster care.
By , an estimated one to two million Americans were HIV positive. As the virus spread, at a time before effective treatments were available, a public panic ensued. Sex education programs in schools were adapted to address the AIDS epidemic which taught Gen X students that sex could kill you. In the s, media pundits and advertisers struggled to define the cohort, typically portraying them as "unfocused twentysomethings".
A MetLife report noted: After the film was released, "journalists and critics thought they put a finger on what was different about these young adults in that 'they were reluctant to grow up' and 'disdainful of earnest action'. Stereotypes of Gen X young adults also included that they were "bleak, cynical, and disaffected". Such stereotypes prompted sociological research at Stanford University to study the accuracy of the characterization of Gen X young adults as cynical and disaffected.
Using the national General Social Survey , the researchers compared answers to identical survey questions asked of 18—year-olds in three different time periods. Additionally, they compared how older adults answered the same survey questions over time. The surveys showed 18—year-old Gen Xers did exhibit higher levels of cynicism and disaffection than previous cohorts of 18—year-olds surveyed; however, they also found that cynicism and disaffection had increased among all age groups surveyed over time, not just young adults, making this a period effect, not a cohort effect.
In other words, adults of all ages were more cynical and disaffected in the s, not just Generation X. In , Time magazine published an article titled "Living: Proceeding with Caution", which described those in their 20s as aimless and unfocused; however, in , they published an article titled "Generation X Reconsidered", which retracted the previously reported negative stereotypes and reported positive accomplishments, citing Gen Xers' tendency to found technology start-ups and small businesses as well as Gen Xers' ambition, which research showed was higher among Gen X young adults than older generations.
In , The New York Times dubbed them "Generation ", describing them as the "once pitied but now envied group of self-employed workers whose income is reported to the Internal Revenue Service not on a W-2 form , but on Form ". He reported Gen Xers' entrepreneurial tendencies helped create the high-tech industry that fueled the s economic recovery. In the US, they were described as the major heroes of the September 11 terrorist attacks by author William Strauss.
The firefighters and police responding to the attacks were predominantly Generation Xers. Additionally, the leaders of the passenger revolt on United Airlines Flight 93 were predominantly Gen Xers. Guides regarding managing multiple generations in the workforce describe Gen Xers as: Gordiner cited examples of Gen Xers' contributions to society such as: Google , Wikipedia , Amazon. In the book, Gordinier contrasts Gen Xers to Baby Boomers, saying Boomers tend to trumpet their accomplishments more than Gen Xers do, creating what he describes as "elaborate mythologies" around their achievements.
Gordiner cites Steve Jobs as an example, while Gen Xers, he argues, are more likely to "just quietly do their thing". In , survey analysis from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth found Gen Xers to be "balanced, active, and happy" in midlife between ages of 30 and 50 and as achieving a work-life balance. The study asked questions such as "Thinking about all aspects of your life, how happy are you? If zero means that you are very unhappy and 10 means that you are very happy, please rate your happiness.
Only four percent of Generation X adults indicated a great deal of unhappiness a score of three or lower. Twenty-nine percent of Generation X adults were very happy with a score of 9 or 10 on the scale. In terms of advocating for their children in the educational setting, author Neil Howe describes Gen X parents as distinct from Baby Boomer parents. Howe argues that Gen Xers are not helicopter parents , which Howe describes as a parenting style of Boomer parents of Millennials. Howe described Gen Xers instead as "stealth fighter parents", due to the tendency of Gen X parents to let minor issues go and to not hover over their children in the educational setting, but to intervene forcefully and swiftly in the event of more serious issues.
The rankings were based on a three-year moving average between and In , a global consumer insights project from Viacom International Media Networks and Viacom , based on over 12, respondents across 21 countries,  reported on Gen X's unconventional approach to sex, friendship and family,  their desire for flexibility and fulfillment at work  and the absence of midlife crisis for Gen Xers. Gen Xers were the first cohort to come of age with MTV. They were the first generation to experience the emergence of music videos as teenagers and are sometimes called the MTV Generation.
As Generation X began to enter adolescence a new generation of rock bands arose such as the Ramones , Johnny Thunders and the Heartbreakers , Richard Hell and the Voidoids in New York City , the Sex Pistols , the Clash , the Damned and, Buzzcocks in the UK , and the Saints in Brisbane — by late these acts were generally recognized as forming the vanguard of "punk rock". While at first the bands were not Gen Xers themselves, the fan base for the early bands was increasingly Gen X and it therefore made a significant imprint on the cohort.
By the influence of punk rock music and subculture became more pervasive, spreading throughout various countries worldwide. Minor Threat , street punk e. Subhumans became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk often later pursued other musical directions, resulting in a broad range of spinoffs, giving rise to genres such as post-punk , new wave and later indie pop , alternative rock , and noise rock.
By the s punk rock re-emerged in the mainstream, as punk rock and pop punk bands with Gen X members such as Green Day , Rancid , The Offspring , and Blink brought the genre widespread popularity. A notable example of alternative rock is grunge music and the associated subculture that developed in the Pacific Northwest of the US. Grunge song lyrics have been called the " The mainstream hip hop music made in the late s and early s, typically by artists originating from the New York metropolitan area.
In addition to lyrical self-glorification, hip hop was also used as a form of social protest.
Age disparity in sexual relationships is the difference in ages of individuals in sexual . Although the "cougar" theme, in which older women date much younger men, is often portrayed in the media as a would accept a mate slightly younger than themselves, there was a wider range of preference for ages above their own. Many major media outlets have cited Pew's definition for the date range of millennials, including Time.
It also includes a duplicate, machine-readable date in the ISO format which is hidden by CSS , for use inside other templates which emit microformats. The hidden date degrades gracefully when CSS is not available. The default output of this template is to display the month before the day MDY. This default may not be appropriate for articles about events or entities in parts of the world where dates are commonly given with the day preceding the month DMY. To display the day first, assign the df parameter a value of yes , y , or 1 e.
Dating is a stage of romantic relationships in humans whereby two people meet socially with the aim of each assessing the other's suitability as a prospective partner in an intimate relationship or marriage. It is a form of courtship , consisting of social activities done by the couple, either alone or with others.
Generation X or Gen X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. Demographers and researchers typically use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid s to the early s.
Age disparity in sexual relationships
Age fabrication occurs when a person deliberately misrepresents their true age. This is usually done with the intent to garner privileges or status that would not otherwise be available to the person. It may be done through the use of oral or written statements or through the altering, doctoring or forging of vital records. On some occasions, age is increased so as to make cut-offs for minimum legal or employable age in showbusiness or professional sports. Sometimes it is not the people themselves who lower their public age, but others around them such as publicists , parents, and other handlers.
Luminescence dating refers to a group of methods of determining how long ago mineral grains were last exposed to sunlight or sufficient heating. It is useful to geologists and archaeologists who want to know when such an event occurred. It uses various methods to stimulate and measure luminescence. All sediments and soils contain trace amounts of radioactive isotopes of elements such as potassium , uranium , thorium , and rubidium. These slowly decay over time and the ionizing radiation they produce is absorbed by mineral grains in the sediments such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The radiation causes charge to remain within the grains in structurally unstable "electron traps". The trapped charge accumulates over time at a rate determined by the amount of background radiation at the location where the sample was buried. Stimulating these mineral grains using either light blue or green for OSL; infrared for IRSL or heat for TL causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral. Most luminescence dating methods rely on the assumption that the mineral grains were sufficiently "bleached" at the time of the event being dated.
Generation Z or Gen Z , also known by a number of other names , is the demographic cohort after the Millennials.
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively ". It can also be described as, "the average period , generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up , become adults, and begin to have children of their own". It is also known as biogenesis , reproduction , or procreation in the biological sciences.
Researchers and popular media typically use the early s as starting birth years and the mids to early s as ending birth years. Millennials are sometimes referred to as "echo boomers" due to a major surge in birth rates in the s and s, and because millennials are often the children of the baby boomers. The characteristics of millennials vary by region and by individual, and the group experiences a variety of social and economic conditions. Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe are widely credited with naming the millennials. The Next Great Generation In August , an Advertising Age editorial coined the phrase Generation Y to describe those who were aged 11 or younger as well as the teenagers of the upcoming ten years who were defined as different from Generation X. In the United States, birth rates peaked in August   and a 20th-century trend toward smaller families in developed countries continued. The Me Me Me Generation. Chinese millennials are commonly called the s and s generations. Oxford Living Dictionaries describes a millennial as "a person reaching young adulthood in the early 21st century.
Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating , as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates coins and written history. Techniques include tree rings in timbers, radiocarbon dating of wood or bones, and trapped-charge dating methods such as thermoluminescence dating of glazed ceramics. In historical geology , the primary methods of absolute dating involve using the radioactive decay of elements trapped in rocks or minerals, including isotope systems from very young radiocarbon dating with 14 C to systems such as uranium—lead dating that allow acquisition of absolute ages for some of the oldest rocks on earth.
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В помещении царила атмосфера полного хаоса.
В Севилье Беккер лихорадочно обдумывал происходящее. Как они называют эти изотопы - U235 и U?. Он тяжко вздохнул: какое все это имеет значение. Он профессор лингвистики, а не физики. - Атакующие линии готовятся к подтверждению доступа. - Господи! - Джабба в отчаянии промычал нечто нечленораздельное.
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